The first argument is on Just and justice. It is interesting to see how the definition of "justice" in recent decades has moved so far away from "just", as Plato narrates. He conceptualizes the basic characteristics of a functioning city/state. To overcome the complexity of "justice" he enumerates what is needed in a functioning city and he calls the remaining as "Justice". It turns out, what remains is to be competent and he calls that "being just", "having justice".
Although widely known as a book on ideal city, Socrates mostly goes beyond and analyzes how a political system can degenerate or evolve to other systems. Based on my understanding, the whole idea of narrating an ideal city is to understand other systems and their fate.
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